The rise of China has been the most significant global economic event of recent times. The United States (U.S.) has both benefitted and suffered from the ramifications of this phenomenon, as we have had an unclear, abiding policy response. However, the 2016 U.S. presidential election created great uncertainty about our response to China’s political and economic evolution. This session will review the remarkable rise of the Chinese economy from Mao in the mid-20th century into the current era. Not only will we focus on the historical roots of that transformation, but how these have shaped the current attitudes and perspectives of Chinese leadership towards economic priorities, growth, and relations with foreign markets and firms. We will then explore the prospects for future political-economic relations between the China and the U.S. as the "American Century" winds down and a new U.S. presidency takes the helm. Participants will be challenged to consider how the benefits of "doing business with China" for American firms must be balanced against the ultimate ends and goals of that nation, as they relate to the U.S. value proposition—which includes respect for free markets, private commerce, democracy, and human rights-- and its own ambitions in the decades ahead.